Physiological Effects

Have we re-discovered acupuncture channels in C nerve cell fibers?
Have scientists in Australia discovered the anatomy behind the channels ?
The mechanism of acupuncture and clinical applications
“It has been determined that endomorphin-1, beta endorphin, encephalin, and serotonin levels increase in plasma and brain tissue through acupuncture application.”
Adenosine A1 receptors mediate local anti-nociceptive effects of acupuncture
We found that adenosine, a neuromodulator with anti-nociceptive properties, was released during acupuncture in mice and that its anti-nociceptive actions required adenosine A1 receptor expression

Acupuncture modulates temporal neural responses in wide brain networks: evidence from fMRI study
Accumulating neuroimaging studies in humans have shown that acupuncture can modulate a widely distributed brain network, large portions of which are overlapped with the pain-related areas.
The integrated response of the human cerebro-cerebellar and limbic systems to acupuncture stimulation at ST 36 as evidenced by fMRI
The study provides preliminary evidence for an integrated response of the human cerebro-cerebellar and limbic systems to acupuncture stimulation at ST 36 that correlates with the psychophysical response.
Modulation of cerebellar activities by acupuncture stimulation: evidence from fMRI study.
Our data suggest that cerebellum serves as important activation loci during the acupuncture stimulation of PC6, and clinicalefficacy of PC6 may be mediated by the cerebellar vestibular neuromatrix
Biophotonics in the infrared spectral range reveal acupuncture meridian structure of the body.
“Evidence of the existence of the acupuncture meridian structure in the human body.”
Acupuncture and endorphins. –
“Studies on the mechanisms of action have revealed that endogenous opioid peptides in the central nervous system play an essential role in mediating the analgesic effect of EA. Further studies have shown that different kinds of neuropeptides are released by EA with different frequencies.”
Functional MRI in healthy subjects during acupuncture: different effects of needle rotation in real and false acupoints. 
“The observation that rotating the needle strengthened the effects of acupuncture only at real acupoints suggests that, as claimed in Chinese traditional medicine, stimulation of these acupoints has a specific effect on cortical neuronal activity, absent with sham acupoints.”
Relations between brain network activation and analgesic effect induced by low vs. high frequency electrical acupoint stimulation in different subjects: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. –
“These results suggest that functional activities of certain brain areas might be correlated with the effect of EAS-induced analgesia, in a frequency-dependent dynamic. EAS-induced analgesia with low and high frequencies seems to be mediated by different, though overlapped, brain networks. The differential activations/de-activations in brain networks across subjects may provide a neurobiological explanation for the mechanisms of the induction and the individual variability of analgesic effect induced by EAS, or that of manual acupuncture as well.”
review on the physiological mechanisms of LI-4 (Hegu) including nerve pathways, and neurotransmitters.
“the authors analyze their correlation from the learning of modern medicine and results of recent experimental studies instead of traditional meridian theory of acupuncturology”
A pilot study of functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain during manual and electroacupuncture stimulation of acupuncture point (LI-4 Hegu) in normal subjects reveals differential brain activation between methods. –
“These results indicate that different brain networks are involved during manual and electroacupuncture stimulation. It suggests that different brain mechanisms may be recruited during manual and electroacupuncture.”
Acupuncture produces central activations in pain regions.
“This indicates that acupuncture could relieve pain by unbalancing the equilibrium of distributed pain-related central networks.”

For Athletes – Enhancing performance and Staying Healthy!

Ergogenic Effect of Acupuncture in Sport and Exercise: A Brief Review.
“The use of acupuncture in resistance and endurance sports activities demonstrated the association of traditional acupuncture protocol with increase of muscular strength and power. In cases regarding endurance activities, acupuncture treatment improved hemodynamic parameters of participants but not their aerobic performance.”
Acupuncture and responses of immunologic and endocrine markers during competition. –
“1). Exercise-induced decrease of salivary SIgA and increase of salivary cortisol were inhibited by acupuncture. 2). Acupuncture improved subjective rating of muscle tension and fatigue. 3). The POMS score was modulated by acupuncture. CONCLUSION: These results support the effectiveness of acupuncture for physical and mental well-being of athletes.”
Acupuncture for Chronic Pain Individual Patient Data Meta-analysis
“Acupuncture is effective for the treatment of chronic pain and is therefore a reasonable referral option. Significant differences between true and sham acupuncture indicate that acupuncture is more than a placebo.”